How to perform CPR - Children

How to perform CPR Children
How to perform CPR on children

If you’re in an emergency, call (000).

Find out how to perform CPR on a child (1-8 years old) by following the guide below. You can also go to specific guides on CPR for adults & older children (over 8 years), infants and during pregnancy.

Please note, the information below is not a substitute for first aid training.

How to determine if CPR is necessary

The DRSABCD action plan is a structured way of assisting a casualty. It includes vital steps such as assessing for danger, checking for a response, sending for help, clearing and opening the airway, and checking for breathing.

The Basic Life Support chart below shows all the critical steps leading up to performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

Child Basic Life Support - DRSABCD Flowchart

Child BLS chart (printable A2 & smaller)

Step-by-step guide

After having followed the DRSABCD plan, follow the steps below. CPR is performed at a ratio of 30:2 (30 chest compressions + 2 rescue breaths).

Chest compressions

1. Place the child on a firm surface on their back. Kneel beside them. 2. Place the heel of one hand on the lower half of the sternum. Use your other hand to gently hold their head in place.

Child CPR guide - chest compressions hand placement
3. Straighten your arm and position yourself over the child’s chest. 4. Use the weight of your body to press straight down onto their chest by ⅓ the depth of their chest which is generally about 5 cm.
Child CPR guide - chest compressions body position
5. Release the pressure. Allow for a full chest recoil by lifting your hands slightly off the chest between each compression. The time spent on chest compressions and release phases should be equal. Pressing down and releasing comprises one compression. 6.Perform 30 chest compressions moderately hard and fast, at a rate of about 100-120 per minute. It is helpful to count aloud.

Rescue breaths (mouth-to-mouth)

After the 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths. 1. Open the child's airway.Ensure the head is tilted back and the chin is lifted by placing one hand on their forehead and the other hand under their chin to tilt the head back.

Child CPR guide - opening airways
2. Use your index finger and thumb to pinch closed the soft part of the child’s nose. Use your other hand to open the child’s mouth.
Child CPR guide - nose pinch, opening mouth
3. Take a breath and with your mouth form a tight seal over the child’s mouth. Blow at a steady rate into the child’s mouth for about 1 second, and look for the chest to rise. Now look for the chest to fall. Repeat and give a second rescue breath.
Child CPR guide - mouth to mouth
If the chest does not rise, make sure:

  • The child is positioned properly.
  • The airway is not obstructed by a foreign body - if it is - remove it.
  • The nose is pinched closed to prevent any air from escaping and you maintain a tight seal with the child's mouth.

One cycle of CPR consists of 30 compressions + 2 rescue breaths. Keep repeating this process and aim to do 5 cycles of CPR in roughly 2 minutes. Giving life-saving CPR is tiring. If you have another person to help you, swap with minimal interruption, so they give compressions and rescue breaths every 5 cycles.

Using an AED

Where an AED is available, turn it on and attach pads or have a bystander attach them so you can continue doing compressions. Follow the AED’s instructions. An AED will analyse heart rhythm every 2 minutes. It may or may not give a shock. Continue to give CPR in between each analysis cycle. Find out more about using an AED.

AED - defibrillator pad positions for a child
Continue performing CPR until:

  • the child responds or resumes breathing normally
  • it is impossible to continue e.g. due to exhaustion
  • a health care professional takes over or directs that CPR be ceased (don't stop until they tell you)
  • it is too dangerous to continue

If the child resumes normal breathing then place them in the Recovery Position and monitor breathing until help arrives.

Child Recovery Position

Other CPR Resources

Child CPR chart (printable A2 & smaller)

Visit the Australia Wide First Aid CPR Library for even more information, guides and downloadable resources.

DisclaimerThis article is for informational purposes only. It does not constitute, replace, or qualify as any form of first aid training.

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